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这只是21世纪的一个奇特的副作用,叫作数码动晕症(digitalmotionsickness),通俗地称作“暗屏幕”(cybersickness)。Digitalmotionsickness,knownamongmedicalprofessionalsasvisuallyinducedmotionsickness,stemsfromabasicmismatchbetweensensoryinputs,saidStevenRauch,medicaldirectoroftheMassachusettsEyeandEarBalanceandVestibularCenterandprofessorofotolaryngologyatHarvardMedicalSchool

本文摘要:这只是21世纪的一个奇特的副作用,叫作数码动晕症(digitalmotionsickness),通俗地称作“暗屏幕”(cybersickness)。Digitalmotionsickness,knownamongmedicalprofessionalsasvisuallyinducedmotionsickness,stemsfromabasicmismatchbetweensensoryinputs,saidStevenRauch,medicaldirectoroftheMassachusettsEyeandEarBalanceandVestibularCenterandprofessorofotolaryngologyatHarvardMedicalSchool

说道

If you are watching computer-generated mayhem in the latest action film or scrolling rapidly on your smartphone, you may start to feel a little off. Maybe it is a dull headache or dizziness or creeping nausea.如果你正在观赏近期的动作片中由电脑特效制作出来的恐慌场面或者较慢滑动智能手机的屏幕,你可能会开始实在有点不难受:也许是隐隐的头痛,又也许是头晕或者罪恶心。And no, it is not something you ate.不,这并不是你不吃了什么不对劲的东西的缘故。

A peculiar side effect of the 21st century is something called digital motion sickness or cybersickness. Increasingly common, according to medical and media experts, it causes a person to feel woozy, as if on a boat in a churning sea, from viewing moving digital content.这只是21世纪的一个奇特的副作用,叫作数码动晕症(digital motion sickness),通俗地称作“暗屏幕”(cybersickness)。医学和媒体专家称之为,这种人因为观赏活动的数码媒体内容而深感头昏眼花,犹如乘船在大海上摇晃的现象于是以更加广泛。

“It’s a fundamental problem that’s been kind of been swept under the carpet in the tech industry,” said Cyriel Diels, a cognitive psychologist and human factors researcher at Coventry University’s Center for Mobility and Transport in England. “It’s a natural response to an unnatural environment.”“这个最重要的问题可以说道在高新技术产业仍然被掩饰,”英格兰考文耳大学(Coventry University)交通及运输中心(Center for Mobility and Transport)的理解心理学家和人为因素研究员西里尔·迪尔斯(Cyriel Diels)说道。“它是对不自然环境的一种大自然反应。”Digital motion sickness, known among medical professionals as visually induced motion sickness, stems from a basic mismatch between sensory inputs, said Steven Rauch, medical director of the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Balance and Vestibular Center and professor of otolaryngology at Harvard Medical School.马萨诸塞州眼耳均衡和前庭中心(Massachusetts Eye and Ear Balance and Vestibular Center)的医务主任、哈佛医学院(Harvard Medical School)的耳鼻咽喉科教授史蒂文·劳赫(Steven Rauch)回应,在医学专业人士显然,数码动晕症是一种由视觉所致的动晕症,其根源在于感官输出信号之间不给定。“Your sense of balance is different than other senses in that it has lots of inputs,” he said. “When those inputs don’t agree, that’s when you feel dizziness and nausea.”“平衡感不同于其他感觉,它可以有很多输出途径,”他说道。

“当这些输出信号不完全一致时,你就不会深感头晕和恶心。”In traditional motion sickness, the mismatch occurs because you feel movement in your muscles and joints as well as in the intricate coils of your inner ear, but you do not see it. That is why getting up on the deck of a ship and looking at the horizon helps you feel better.在传统的动晕症中,对立感觉源于你的肌肉、关节以及内耳错综复杂的半规管系统都感觉到你正在运动,但你的眼睛却报告给你忽略的结果。这也就是为什么你车站到船的甲板上远眺地平线能提高你晕船症状的原因。

But with digital motion sickness, it is the opposite. You see movement — like the turns and twists shown in a movie or video game car chase — that you do not feel. The result is the same: You may have sensory conflict that can make you feel queasy.数码动晕症则恰恰相反。你明明看见自己在运动——例如你看见电影或视频游戏中的飞车追赶和弯道——可你的其他感官几乎没运动的感觉。其结果与普通动晕症完全相同:感觉的冲突不会让你实在恶心。

It can happen to anyone, even if you are someone who is not prone to motion sickness in cars, boats or airplanes. Various studies indicate it can affect 50 percent to 80 percent of people, depending on the fidelity of the digital content and how it is presented.任何人都有可能再次发生这种情况,哪怕你平素并不更容易晕车、晕船或晕机。众多研究指出,人群中暗屏幕者的比例高达50%到80%,明确各不相同数码内容的保真度及其呈现出方式。

Studies show that women are more susceptible than men, as are those with a history of migraines or concussion. Anecdotally, researchers say that people with traits associated with the “Type A” personality — such as perfectionism or ambition — also seem to be more vulnerable. Nobody knows exactly why this might be, but one theory is that people with these traits may also have a tendency to be more alert and reactive to sensory inputs, similar to people who get migraines.研究表明,女性比男性更容易经常出现数码动晕症,有偏头痛或脑震荡史者回应也更为脆弱。有意思的是,研究人员称之为,具有“A型”人格特质的人,如完美主义或雄心勃勃的人或许也更加有可能经常出现这种症状。目前尚能没有人清楚地告诉为什么不会是这样,但有一种理论指出,不具备这些特质的人有可能对感觉输出信号更加警觉,反应也更大,这与偏头痛患者类似于。

Often symptoms are subtle. As a result, many people with digital motion sickness do not quite know what is causing their discomfort, typically chalking it up to stress, stomach upset, eyestrain or vertigo.数码动晕症的症状往往难以捉摸,所以很多患者都搞不清楚究竟是什么原因造成了他们的不适感,而经常将其归咎于压力、胃不难受、眼睛疲惫或失眠等。None of this is news to the military, which has long known about the sickness that even seasoned pilots can feel in flight simulators. And the problem has only gotten worse as simulators have gotten better with virtual reality and 3D imagery.不过,这在军队里推倒算不上什么稀奇事,人们早已告诉,在用于飞行中模拟器时,就算是经验丰富的飞行员也可能会感觉恶心。

随着模拟器的改良,虚拟现实和三维图像的构建,这个问题于是以显得更加差劲。It is the same sort of mind-bending artistry that is now pervading television and film and that even underlies the way the icons seem to float on your smartphone’s home screen. Quick cuts, rapid panning and first-person-view camera angles intensify the effect.与此互为类似于的还有在当下影视中十分少见的令人激动的技巧,甚至让你错觉智能手机上的图标是飘浮在主屏幕上的也是这类的把戏。飞速转换、较慢旋转和第一人称视角的镜头都会增强这种效应。

“The idea is to get audiences to feel like participants in the action rather than outside observers of the action,” said Jonathan Weinstein, a former film producer and now a professor at the Kanbar Institute for Film and Television at New York University’s Tisch School of the Arts. “It makes viewers more connected to the story — or it makes them hurl because in a film there’s really no horizon to look at.”“我们想要让观众感觉自己于是以身临其境,亲身参予,而某种程度是作壁上观的局外人,”曾多次的电影制片人,如今的纽约大学(New York University)Tisch艺术学院(Tisch School of the Arts)Kanbar影视研究院(Kanbar Institute for Film and Television)教授乔纳森·温斯坦(Jonathan Weinstein)说道。“它让观众更容易带入故事当中——又或者说,更容易让你头晕目眩,却是电影里可没‘地平线’来老大你矫正。

”Indeed, there is a website called MovieHurl.com that rates movies on how likely they are to make you feel sick. And mobile device and gamer forums are full of postings looking for advice on how to engage with the latest operating systems and interfaces without throwing up.事实上,还真为有一个叫作MovieHurl.com的网站按照各部电影致人头晕恶心的程度给它们做到了名列。而移动设备和玩家的论坛上也弥漫着告知如何在你好近期操作系统和界面的同时又不至于腹泻的求救帖。Apple had to add extra accessibility settings to its mobile operating system to allow users to tone down the visual stimuli. And executives at Oculus V.R., makers of the much-anticipated virtual reality headset Oculus Rift (the company was purchased by Facebook last year for $2 billion), have said digital motion sickness is one of their biggest hurdles.苹果公司(Apple)被迫在其移动操作系统中额外加到了辅助功能设置,以减少对用户的视觉性刺激。万众期望的虚拟现实耳机Oculus Rift的制造商Oculus VR公司(该公司已于去年被Facebook以20亿美元的价格并购)的高管回应,数码动晕症是令其他们头痛深感的仅次于障碍之一。

“The more realistic something is, the more likely you are going to get sick,” said Thomas Stoffregen, professor of kinesiology at the University of Minnesota, who has done extant research on digital motion sickness. “No one got sick playing Pac-Man.”“一个东西变得就越现实,就就越有可能让你深感恶心,”明尼苏达大学(University of Minnesota)的运动学教授,数码动晕症的研究者托马斯·施托夫雷根(Thomas Stoffregen)说道。“谁都会因为玩游戏不吃豆人而恶心”。

Balance specialists said the problem can often be improved with habituation — watching, say, a chaotically cut film or playing a virtual reality game in short spurts just until the onset of mild symptoms, then recovering and repeating at specified intervals.均衡专家回应,这个问题一般可以通过习惯化来提高——比如,短时间地观赏剪辑得乱七八糟的影片或者玩游戏虚拟现实游戏,在你产生严重症状之前就停下,睡觉一下,然后再行反复,如此以特定的时间间隔重复。“People usually respond well if we have them do it in a very controlled, conservative way,” said Lisa Heusel-Gillig, a physical therapist and neurological clinical specialist at the Emory Dizziness and Balance Center in Atlanta.“在以高度高效率且十分激进的方式来展开上述习惯化训练时,人们一般来说反应不俗。

”亚特兰大Emory失眠和均衡中心(Emory Dizziness and Balance Center)的物理治疗师及神经科临床专家莉莎·休塞尔-吉利格(Lisa Heusel-Gillig)说道。But some experts wonder whether it is a good idea to train your brain to ignore conflicting sensory stimuli because it might inhibit your ability to react appropriately in the real world.但也有部分专家批评训练大脑去忽略对立的感官性刺激不一定是个好主意,因为这可能会诱导你在现实世界中作出必要反应的能力。“There are certainly concerns, particularly when it comes to long term exposure,” said Kay Stanney, a human factors researcher in Orlando, Fla., who consults with the military and businesses on the design and use of virtual reality and other immersive technologies.“这样认同不会产生隐患,特别是在是牵涉到长年认识的时候,”佛罗里达州奥兰多市的人为因素研究员凯·史丹尼(Kay Stanney)说道。

她是军方和企业在虚拟现实和其他沉浸式技术(immersive technologies,又译为身临其境技术)的设计和用于领域的顾问之一。Dr. Stanney said her team has tested more than a thousand subjects in virtual reality sessions and has seen that the magnitude of aftereffects can be strong and long lasting. When study subjects returned to the real world,they had trouble with visual focusing, tracking images and hand-eye coordination.史丹尼博士称之为,她的团队利用虚拟现实片段测试了一千多名受试者,找到其后遗症的效果强劲且长久。当研究受试者回到现实世界时,他们在视觉探讨、图像追踪和手眼协商等方面都经常出现了问题。

Dr. Stanney said her team also measured a fundamental shift in people’s postural stability.史丹尼博士补足说道,她的团队还找到这些人的姿态稳定性再次发生了根本性的改变。The worry is that a teenager, after several hours of playing a virtual reality game, might get behind the wheel of a car and have balance and vision impairments similar to being drunk. Lengthy viewing of high-definition televisions or scrolling wildly on a phone might also somehow alter people’s sense of equilibrium, making them more likely to trip and fall.最令人担忧的是,青少年很有可能在玩游戏了几个小时的虚拟现实游戏后接着就去驾车,此时他很有可能经常出现醉酒般的均衡和视觉障碍。

长时间观赏高清电视或较慢滑动手机屏幕也有可能以某种方式转变人们的平衡感,使他们更容易摔倒和拳击。“Long-term studies need to be done to understand the full impact,” Dr. Stanney said. “In the military you can be grounded for up to 12 hours after a simulator session because they understand the aftereffects are real.”“想全面地理解这些影响必须展开长年的研究,”史丹尼博士说道。“在军队里,飞行员在模拟器训练后最久不会被停航12个小时,因为他们都确切这些副作用可不是唬人的。

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